jatropha

Jatropha Tree
Jatropha Being Monitored for Water Usage

From www.scienceinafrica.co.za which is conducting water usage studies on Jatropha in Africa.

The Jatropha curcas tree, originates from Mexico. It’s oil-producing seeds (30%-35% oil) and entire plant are inedible (toxic) to humans, and most animals and birds. It produces for 50 years.

A small tree or shrub with a maximum height of 5 m, Jatropha curcas reportedly grows readily in areas of low rainfall (from 250 mm a year) and in poor soils, however, yield is strongly affected by growing conditions. The trees are easy to establish (from seeds or cuttings), grow relatively quickly (producing seed after their second year) and are hardy to drought.

There are several concerns around the affect of such a species on the coutry’s already scarce water resources as well as the possible invasive nature of the plant.

Jatropha Seeds are toxic to wildlife
Toxic Jatrpoha Seeds

It requires a minimum of 25 inches of rainfall but prefers 69 inches of rainfall. Seed production ranges from about 2 tons per hectare per year to over 12.5t/ha/year, after five years of growth. This range in production may be attributable to the amount of water it receives. See www.jatrophabiodiesel.org .

Maui growers would be competing with India where jatropha workers are paid 19 cents per hour.

The invasive and poisonous nature of this plant would most likely result in bird and animal poisonings on Maui.

Nat’l Biodiesel Board’s Life Cycle Paper

In May of 1998, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Department of Agriculture (USDA) published the results of the Biodiesel Lifecycle Inventory Study. It compared findings for a comprehensive “cradle to grave” inventory of materials used; energy resources consumed; and air, water and solid waste emissions generated by petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel in order to compare the total “lifecycle” costs and benefits of each of the fuels. This 3.5-year study followed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and private industry-approved protocols for conducting this type of research. Below is a summary of the study. The full text of this 312 page study may be found at:

http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/reportsdatabase/reports/gen/19980501_gen-339.pdf.
In evaluating the results of the Lifecycle Inventory Study, several caveats need to be noted. First, the study was not designed to present conclusions on the appropriate policies to promote the use of biodiesel. Instead, the study was designed to provide policy makers with comparative information that they could use to formulate appropriate policies regarding biodiesel. Second, the study does not provide any economic comparisons or valuations based on current market prices for the two fuels. Third, the study generally assumes that the comparative lifecycle benefits or costs of biodiesel and diesel fuel are proportional when biodiesel and diesel fuel are blended into one fuel, as in the popular 20% biodiesel/80% diesel blend known as B20.

With these caveats in mind, the major findings of the study are:

  • The total energy efficiency ratio (ie. total fuel energy/total energy used in production, manufacture, transportation, and distribution) for diesel fuel and biodiesel are 83.28% for diesel vs 80.55% for biodiesel. The report notes: “Biodiesel and petroleum diesel have very similar energy efficiencies.”
  • The total fossil energy efficiency ratio (ie. total fuel energy/total fossil energy used in production, manufacture, transportation, and distribution) for diesel fuel and biodiesel shows that biodiesel is four times as efficient as diesel fuel in utilizing fossil energy – 3.215 for biodiesel vs 0.8337% for diesel. The study notes: “In terms of effective use of fossil energy resources, biodiesel yields around 3.2 units of fuel product for every unit of fossil energy consumed in the lifecycle. By contrast, petroleum diesel’s life cycle yields only 0.83 units of fuel product per unit of fossil energy consumed. Such measures confirm the ‘renewable’ nature of biodiesel.” The report also notes: “On the basis of fossil energy inputs, biodiesel enhances the effective utilization of this finite energy source.”
  • In urban bus engines, biodiesel and B20 exhibit similar fuel economy to diesel fuel, based on a comparison of the volumetric energy density of the two fuels. The study explains, “Generally fuel consumption is proportional to the volumetric energy density of the fuel based on lower or net heating value. ..{D}iesel contains about 131,295 Btu/gal while biodiesel contains approximately 117,093 Btu/gal. The ratio is 0.892. If biodiesel has no impact on engine efficiency, volumetric fuel economy would be approximately 1 0% lower for biodiesel compared to petroleum diesel. However, fuel efficiency and fuel economy of biodiesel tend to be only 2%-3% less than #2 diesel.”
  • The overall lifecycle emissions of carbon dioxide (a major greenhouse gas) from biodiesel are 78% lower than the overall carbon dioxide emissions from petroleum diesel. “The reduction is a direct result of carbon recycling in soybean plants,” notes the study.

*The overall lifecycle emissions of carbon monoxide (a poisonous gas and a contributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone) from biodiesel are 35% lower than overall carbon monoxide emissions from diesel. Biodiesel also reduces bus tailpipe emissions of carbon monoxide by 46%. The study says “Biodiesel could, therefore, be an effective tool for mitigating CO in EPA’s designated CO non-attainment areas.”

*The overall lifecycle emissions of particulate matter (recognized as a contributing factor in respiratory disease) from biodiesel are 32% lower than overall particulate matter emissions from diesel. Bus tailpipe emissions of PM1 0 are 68% lower for biodiesel compared to petroleum diesel. The study notes, ‘PM10 emitted from mobile sources is a major EPA target because of its role in respiratory disease. Urban areas represent the greatest risk in terms of numbers of people exposed and level of PM 1 0 present. Use of biodiesel in urban buses is potentially a viable option for controlling both life cycle emissions of total particulate matter and tailpipe emission of PM1 O.”

The study also finds that biodiesel reduces the total amount of particulate matter soot in bus tailpipe exhaust by 83.6%. Soot is the heavy black smoke portion of the exhaust that is essentially 100% carbon that forms as a result of pyrolysis reactions during fuel combustion. The study notes there is on-going research to discover the relationship between exposure to diesel soot and cancerous growths in mice. Beyond the potential public health benefit from substantially reduced soot emissions, the study also notes: [T]here is an aesthetic benefit associated with significantly less visible smoke observed from the tailpipe. For urban bus operators, this translates into improved public relations.”

*The overall lifecycle emissions of sulfur oxides (major components of acid rain) from biodiesel are 8% lower than overall sulfur oxides emissions from diesel. Biodiesel completely eliminates emissions of sulfur oxides from bus tailpipe emissions. The study notes, “Biodiesel can eliminate sulfur oxides emissions because it is sulfur-free.”

* The overall lifecycle emissions of methane (one of the most potent greenhouse gases) from biodiesel are almost 3.0% lower than overall methane emissions from diesel. The study notes, “Though the reductions achieved with biodiesel are small, they could be significant when estimated on the basis of its ‘CO2 equivalent’-warming potential.”

* The overall lifecycle emissions of nitrogen oxides (a contributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone) from biodiesel are 13% greater than overall nitrogen oxide emissions from diesel. An urban bus that runs on biodiesel has tailpipe emissions that are only 8.89% higher than a bus operated on petroleum diesel. The study also notes: “Smaller changes in NOx emissions for BIOO and B20 have been observed in current research programs on new model engines but it is still to early to predict whether all or just a few future engines will display this characteristic.” and “… (S)olutions are potentially achievable that meet tougher future (vehicle) standards for NOx without sacrificing the other benefits of this fuel.”

* The bus tailpipe emissions of hydrocarbons (a contributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone) are 37% lower for biodiesel than diesel fuel. However, the overall lifecycle emissions of hydrocarbons from biodiesel are 35% greater than overall hydrocarbon emissions from diesel. The study notes, ‘In understanding the implications of higher lifecycle emissions, it is important to remember that emissions of hydrocarbons, as with all of the air pollutants discussed, have localized effects. In other words it makes a difference where these emissions occur. The fact that biodiesel’s hydrocarbon emissions at the tailpipe are lower may mean that the biodiesel life cycle has beneficial effects on urban area pollution.”

The study also cautions about drawing hard conclusions related to the total life cycle emissions of hydrocarbons from sources other than the engine tailpipe: “We have less confidence in the hydrocarbon air emissions results from this study. …Our data set includes numbers reported as “unspecified hydrocarbons” and as “non-methane hydrocarbons'(NMHC). Given these kinds of ambiguities in the data, results on hydrocarbon emissions need to be viewed with caution.”

* The overall lifecycle production of wastewater from biodiesel is 79.0% lower than overall production of wastewater from diesel. The study notes, ‘Petroleum diesel generates roughly five times as much wastewater flow as biodiesel.’

The overall lifecycle production of hazardous solid wastes from biodiesel is 96% lower than overall production of hazardous solid wastes from diesel. However, the overall life cycle production of non-hazardous solid wastes from biodiesel is twice as great as the production of non-hazardous solid wastes from diesel. The study notes: “Given the more severe impact of hazardous versus non-hazardous waste disposal, this is a reasonable trade-off.”

Maui Group Salutes Environmental Heroes At Silver Anniversary Awards Ceremony

The Maui Sierra Club Executive Committee extends a hearty “mahalo” to all those volunteers, community members and local businesses who made our 25th Anniversary Silver Moon Gala a resounding success. See complete list below.


Maui Group Salutes Environmental Heroes
At Silver Anniversary Awards Ceremony

The Maui Group’s quarter century of accomplishments have been made possible through the dedicated efforts of numerous Group members and allies. During its November 3, 2006 Silver Anniversary Gala, the Group  presented special service awards to thank some of the many who have offered their time and talents to protect Maui’s environment.

Those honored were:

  •  Dana & Isaac Hall: Aloha ‘Aina Award. The for nearly two decades the Halls have contributed their legal expertise and expert research to defending Maui’s lands, waters and cultural sites.
  •  Lorna Joan Harrison: Malama ‘Aina Award. Lorna has quietly and tirelessly organized, led and participated in countless service outing projects over the past 20 years, protecting Maui’s native plants and ridding the island of alien pests.
  •  Dr. Rick Sands and Anthony Ranken, Esq.: Malama Kahakai Award. Rick and Anthony launched a successful, year-long SPAM (State Park at Makena) campaign to preserve Maui’s famed Big Beach while serving on the Maui Group Excomm. Both were founders of MG ally, Maui Tomorrow.
  •  Mary Evanson: Lifetime Achievement Award for her numerous conservation efforts that have proven so effective.

In addition, the five founding members of the Maui Group of Sierra Club (or a close family member in their stead) were honored:

  • 8/3/09
  •  Bud Aronson
  •  The late John Bose
  •  Dr. James Fleming
  •  Noted biologist, Cameron Kepler

Our thanks to AT&T Wireless of Maui, which has donated a cell phone to the Maui Group for use in assuring safety on our hikes and outings, and for facilitating the activity of volunteers working on public interest and educational issues. Maui Group heartily thanks AT&T Wireless for their support of our activities.

A special note of appreciation goes to  David Leese for many years of devoted service as vice-chairman, secretary, and newsletter editor (usually all at the same time). He is taking a well-deserved break.


Mahalo to All Who Made the
Silver Moon Gala Possible

SPECIAL
Anthony Ranken, Esq
Barry & Stella Rivers
Big Bugga Sportswear
Borders
David Darling
David Tracy-Metz
Daya Ceglia
Design Network, Makawao
Dolphin T’s /Dreams of Fields Gallery
Dr. Diane Shephard, DVM
Ed Lindsey
Gordeen Bailey
Groove 2 Music
Haiku Pharmacy
John Schofill
Kathy Marchetti
Liz Lanes-Brown
Maui Child
Maui Printing, Co.
Nagasako’s Fish Market
Peter Scheel
Richard Fields
Timpone Hawaii
Tropical Disk
Vickie Schultz
Dr. Andrew M. & Nikki JanssenDONORS
All Computer Services/Ken Stover
Aloha Bead Co., Paia
Sarah Klopping
Alysia McKee
Andrew Annenberg
Angie Young Hair Salon
Ann Fielding
Anna Hadley
Anthony’s Coffee Shop
Art by Lloyd
AT&T
Audrey Antone Blaack
Barbara Steinberg
Barry & Stella Rivers
Biasa Rose Boutique
Big Bugga, Paia
Bill Best Creations
Blue Hawaiian Helicopters
Brian Parker
Candace Horton
Capt Simone & Maureen
Carl Lyle Jenkins
Christa Morf
Christina Hemming
Christine Warner
Claudia Keane
Claudio Stancov
Claud’s Motor Tech, Kula
Clear Image
Deanna Rassmusson
Dennis Holzer
Dr. Andrew M. & Nikki Janssen
Dr. Leisure
Dr. Nathan Ehrlich, N.D
Dr. Whitley
Driesbach Data
Dunes at Maui Lani
EJLDF
Ellen Levinsky
Erin Graue
Ernie’s QuickLube, Kihei
Eva Daniels
Franklin Levinson
Gail Pickholz
George Allen
Goodies of Makawao
Haleakala Express
Hank Kline
Hawaiian Herbal
Helen Anne Schonwalter
Hermine Harman
Ho`ike
Howie of Maui
Huelo Point Flower Farm
Huelo Point Lookout
Island Essence
Island People, Paia
Isle Dezyn & Interiors
Jaggers, Paia
Janice McCormick/Great Cuts
Jason Schwarz, Pacific West Mortgage
Jor-El
Julia Renigado
Just for You and Me Kid
Kai Mayerfeld
Karen Jennings
Karen Stover
Karen Stover Maui Ocean Center
Katya Rice
Katya Rice
Kelli Meade
K-Mart
Koa B Handwovens
Kutira DeCosterd
Lance Tanino
Lee Altenburg
Lisa Owens
Lucienne de Naie
Lucretia Oddie
Mama’s Fish House
Mana Foods, Paia
Mana Foods, Paia
Mandala, Paia
Manuela Christenel
Margie Campbell
Maria Socorro Young
Martha Vockrodt Moran
Masako Wescott
Maui Girl, Paia
Maui Heavenscapes
Maui Myth & Magic Theater
Maui Wellness Center
Melissa Hamilton
Melissa Hamilton
Monica & Michael Sweet
Moonbow, Paia
Neola Caveny
Niyaso Carter
Northshore Chiropratic
Nuage Bleu
O’Connor Silhouettes
Old Plantation, Paia
Orchids of Olinda
Pacific Island Art
Paia Trading Company
Patagonia
Paula Brock
Pauline Sugarman
Peter Kafka
Peter Voorhees/A Cut Above
Piero Resta
Postal Plus, Makawao
Pukalani Chiropractic
Richard Dan
Richard Langford
Rick Newenger
Robbie Friedlander
Sandy Vitarelli
Sativa Hempwear
Shangri-La, Huelo
Sharon Owens
Sherri Reeve
Sony Corporation
Spyglass House
Stella River
Stephanie Landers
Tanesha Bryan
Terri Mister
Terry Tico
The Enchantress, Paia
Thomas & Joan Heartfield
Travel Hawaii
Tropical Orchid Farm
Val Sisneros
Vic’s Plumbing
W.S.B. Tully
Willi Wolf
William Lattner

ENTERTAINMENT
Musical Options Entertainment
Victoria Joyce
Joy Magarifuji
Espresso
Tim O’Hara,band leader
Greg Marsh, drums
Tim Hackbarth, bass
Jim Downing, keyboard
Pam Petersen, vocals
Margie Heart, vocals
Tony Ray, vocals
Laurie Rohrer
Jake Rohrer
Ata Damasco
Pam Poland

VOLUNTEERS

Alex Minor
Amy Chang
Andres Fisher
Anthony Rankin
Ave Diaz
Becky Kikumoto
Bobbie Becker
Brian Parker
Carol Pratt
Chandrika
Chris Mentzel
Chuck Stokesberry
Claire Cappelle
Daniel Grantham
David St. John
David Tracey-Metz
Deanna Rasmussen
Diane Shepherd
Ed Jorel Elkin
Erin Whitley
Evie Polland
Francis Saluto
Fred Spanjaard
George Shattenburg
Greg Wahl
Hannah Bernard
Harriet Witt-Miller
Heather Secord
Helen Ann Scholwalter
Jan Dapitan
Janis McMormick
Jay Griffen
Jeff Mikulina
Jennifer Stephens
Johnny Thorn
Joy Brann
Julie Douglas
Karen Stover
Kathy Marcheti
Kelli Meade
Kiva Herman
Koana Smith
Lance Holter
Lela Nickel
Liz Welter
Lotus Dancer
Lucienne de Naie
Maha Conyers
Marghi Campbell
Mark Rudd
Mark Sheehan
Martha Martin
Marty McMahon
Mele Stokesberry
Mike Foley
Miranda Camp
Nadine Newlight
Nancy Shearman
Neola Caveny
Nora Steinbrick
Pam McIsaac
Pamela Gould
Penelope Rose
Peter Kafka
Phillip Whitley
Ray Soden
Ray Soden
Rick Sands
Rob Parsons
Robin Ricards
Ron Sturtz
Saharah Dyson
Sara Patton
Sherry Reeve
Spring Manju
Stephanie Minor
Stuart d’enuff
Sun Dancer
Susan Bradford
Susanna Goodwin
Tanmayo Mentzel
Tara Grace
Terry Reim
Tina Dart
Tom Stevens
Uma Hemming
Valerie Sisneros

Thank You

Thanks to the many supporters who donated plants for Maui Group’s annual plant sale at the Ha’iku Ho’olaulea & Flower Festival. Becky Lau, Lorna Harrison, Diana Dahl, Gail Ainsworth, Martha Vockrodt, Tropical Orchid Farm, Valley Farm, Ha’iku Maui Orchids, Neola Caveny and others supplied a bounty of beautiful greenery. Dot Buck coordinated the plant sale with help from Celeste King and other MG volunteers. Jill Sullivan coordinated the MG info booth at the event.

 

Mahalos

Mahalo to Cody Gillette & Eve Moffatt who generously donated a portion of revenues from their gala March 14 CD release party at ‘Iao Theatre to Maui Group. Both are award winning musicians who care about Maui’s ‘aina.

Sand Exports

2006 Report

The Maui Inland Sand Resource Quantification Study prepared for the County of Maui Department of Public Works and Environmental Management is now posted on the County of Maui website athttp://www.mauicounty.gov under “New Additions.”

“The information contained in the study verifies what we have long believed,” said Mayor Alan Arakawa, “that our sand resources are finite and that perhaps we should consider a moratorium on sand exports to preserve this resource a long as possible for the people of Maui County to whom the resource belongs.

According to a report prepared for the county, local sources of sand — the key ingredient in concrete — may run out within five to seven years.

About 5.5 million tons of sand have been mined on Maui between 1986 and 2006, according to the report prepared by consultant Howard Hanzawa for the county Department of Public Works and Environmental Management.

The sand is a precious commodity used in Honolulu’s booming construction industry — more than 70 percent of the 318,000 tons mined annually (2006 number) is shipped to Honolulu. The sand is also the only material now available for local beach restoration projects.

Mayor Arakawa asked the council to review “the option of declaring a moratorium on export of sand mined in Maui County to be explored in order to extend the life of Maui’s remaining sand resources for Maui’s people.”  Council Member Michelle Anderson supported the moritorium saying, “Why should we be exporting sand to Oahu for more development, when we’re going to need that sand to replenish our beaches?”

Ameron Hawaii, is the company mining and exporting sand.