BNL Landfill Trash Proposal

2 Executive Summary

2.1 Proposed IWCEP Solution

BNL Clean Energy proposes, as a core element to the solution to the County of
Maui’s IWCEP RFP, our new-generation power system technology as part of an
integrated waste management system.

2.2 Overview of BNL Technology

The technology we propose is the result of many years of product research and
development, and has resulted in a series of applications for, and receipt of,
patents covering the key innovations inherent in our technology.
By going “back to basics”, we have engineered a Closed Loop Thermo-
Chemical Process (CLTCP) that allows us to take a wide range of source
feedstuffs and return a wide range of useful byproducts.

A key point of our CLTCP technology is that, by definition, it is closed-loop hence
there are no flues and no flue-gases being venting. Thus there is no emission of
greenhouse gases, and no emission of toxic materials into the environment.

2.3 Feedstuffs

These include:

* Municipal Solid Waste – of virtually any organic composition

* Municipal Biosolids

* Biomass – trees, woodland/forest waste, bio power station residues

* Used tyres

* Used oils – of both fossil or vegetable origins

* Municipal Landfill Clearance (MSW cleared from existing landfill)

This list is not exhaustive, but rather to give an indication of the flexibility that can
be provided – “speciality” waste streams such as medical biohazard waste or
aged explosives can also be processed if required but with appropriate handling.
An important point to note is that the feedstuff mix does not have to be
homogeneous; it can be varied depending on what is available at a given time,
but conversely, a “recipe” can be derived that will generally dispose of feedstuffs
in predefined proportions to address local storage requirements or transport

2.4 Outputs

A number of options are available with our technology, and most are relevant in a
higher or lower degree to the RFP:

2.4.1 Primary Outputs Synthetic Fuels

Depending on requirements, this can be diesel (typically commercial grade, for
truck and heavy plant operation), or kerosene (typically Jet A-1 for aviation use),
or light fuel oil (typically for maritime use).

Note that the type of fuel can be changed dynamically; i.e. to output a different
fuel type requires no physical changes to the equipment, only internal changes to
the chemistry being executed within the equipment. Electric Power Generation

A further option is to use a proportion of energy from a system to generate
energy via a closed-cycle gas turbine (CCGT).

The key point to note is that a CCGT uses heat generated directly from the
system – i.e. it does not burn fuel as a “normal” gas turbine does – thus the zero-
emission status of the system is maintained. Heating/Cooling

If required, a proportion of the thermal capacity of the system can be utilised for,
for example, district heating/cooling, ice manufacture, lumber kilns. This has
multiple benefits in terms of better utilisation by sharing infrastructure whilst
reducing demand on local electricity or other energy supply systems. Desalinated Water

If required, desalination facilities can be supported by our systems. Feedstock Drying

Low-grade heat is available for feedstock drying – for example, of sewage-related
semisolids – without loss of efficiency related to other outputs.

2.4.2 Secondary Outputs

A number of secondary outputs are generated to a varying degree that is entirely
dependent on the nature and/or mix of feedstuffs used. Inert Ash

Due to the technology process, all ash generated is clean and can be used for
road construction, horticultural deployment or equivalent use. Rare Earths and Heavy Metals Extraction

Unlike typical open-flue systems, these are captured with other non-organic
materials that are normally regarded as “problematic”. The containing wastes will
be barrelled and shipped to specialist metal recycling processors, most likely in
California Sulphate, Nitrate, Phosphate Extraction

Sulphate, nitrate and phosphate derivatives are extracted for reuse as inorganic

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