From Environmental Management for Palm Oil Mill by A. H-Kittikun et al.
One ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) composed of 230-250 kg of empty fruit bunch (EFB), 130-150 kg of fiber, 60-65 kg of shell and 55-60 kg of kernel and 160-200 kg of crude oil.
Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the mixture of high polluted effluent (from sterilizer and oil room) and low polluted effluent (steam condensate, cooling water, boiler discharge and sanitary effluent).
The most appropriate secondary treatment for POME is biological digestion in which the combination of anaerobic and aerobic ponds is used presently. Spillage of POME into ground water or into surface water must be avoided.
The mills generate by-products and liquid wastes which may have a significant impact on the environment if they are not dealt with properly.
From Favorable Palm Oil Production for Cote d’Ivoire
Oil palms require from 59-157 inches of water per year. Mature palm trees reach peak production or yields after 12-years of growth and need to be replaced after 25-30 years due to lower production potential caused by aging.